Copyright © 2016
Alan Bartling

Rome Defined by Calendars

1). Roman Republic (Roman Republic calendar).

2). Roman Civilization (Julius Caesar calendar).

3). Roman Empire (Augustan calendar).

4). Roman Catholic Church (Julian calendar).

5). Pope Catholic Church (Gregorian calendar).


A great many changes occurred in the calendars down through the centuries.

1). Length of year.

2). Leap months.

3). Political maneuvering of days.

4). Year of confusion.

5). Inclusive leap years.

6). Days deleted (February) then added discriminately.

7). Deletion of multiple leap days.

8). Month lengths changed.

9). Descending years became ascending.

10). Final alignment with additional leap day.

This time period is described in The Revelation as “the great river Euphrates” (Rev. 9:14). It’s composed of the “sea” (B.C.) and “earth” (A.D.), separated by Daniel’s “palace” (zero year; Dan. 11:45). In comparison to this hegemony is the statement “in the glorious holy mountain” – the concurrent orbital God Ordained Celestial Solar System; chronology/chronometry.


John the Revelator picks up the story at #4 above in Revelation 8,9,10. The most startling aspect is discovered, God is causing all of this to happen and reporting it to mankind through his prophet John (Rev. 8:1-6). Wow all that torture down through the dark and other ages was unnecessary, but will be adjudicated! “Men” is a metaphor for months (Rev. 8:11).

The metaphoric puzzle of John in Rev. 8:7-12 identifies the months of the year:

1).  January = “trees”.

2).  February = “green grass”.

3).  March = “sea”.

4).  April = “creatures”.

5).  May = “ships”.

6).  June = “rivers”.

7).  July = “fountains of waters”.

8).  August = “sun”.

9).  September = “moon”.

10).   October = “stars”.

11).   November = “day”.

12).   December = “night”.


Historic events during this time period in Revelation, are interspersed within the calendric metaphoric layout (prominently Julius Caesar’s year of confusion). Revelation 8:5 says there was an “earthquake” (Biblical metaphor for calendar change). Most of what happened historically in Rome is not a mystery, thus we can deduce what John is talking about metaphorically. The identifying factor is the “third part”. The “hail and fire mingled with blood” (Rev. 8:7) is identifying Julius Caesar’s three (3) month intercalary reform. In the translation by Robert Graves of Suetonius’s THE TWELVE CAESARS (p. 30), there’s a summary of Julius Caesar’s reforms.

“He (Julius Caesar) linked the year to the course of the sun by lengthening it to 365 days, abolishing the short extra month and adding an entire day every fourth year. But to make the next first of January (44 B.C.) fall at the right season, he drew out this particular year by two further months, inserted between November and December, so that it consisted of fifteen, including the short extra one inserted after February in the old style.”

So, we have three (3) extra months and an alignment of the calendar. We also know the identification of the Roman calendar is the “kalend/calend” (first day of the month). To align January correctly to his satisfaction, Julius Caesar lined the vernal equinox with March 1st, 45 B.C., by adding two (2) months before the beginning of the year and one extra month after, constituting the Roman “irregular year”. This period of time was historically called the “year of confusion” (November 46 B.C. through December 45 B.C.).

“And the third part of trees (January) was burnt up,” (Rev. 8:7) because the alignment moved the months backward apparently twenty (20) days, which forced January 45 B.C. back into December of 46 B.C. “And all green grass (February) was burned up.” (Rev. 8:7) because the final extra month supplanted February. “A great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea (March): and the third part of the sea became blood (useless):” (Rev. 8:8) because the twenty (20) day adjustment moved the alignment backwards 2/3rd of March; meaning Biblically March is authorized to have thirty (30) days. As you can read then all the rest of the months (men) were affected by a third (3rd) part (Julius Caesar’s “year of confusion”).


“And the third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters: And the name of the star is called Wormwood: and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter.” (Rev. 8:10,11).

“Year of Confusion”

45 B.C.
Revelation 8:10,11; 9:16
March 21st = Sunday
Functions as #12 calendar

March 1st = Vernal Equinox


One look at this calendar shows someone spent an enormous amount of time constructing it. The symmetry is arraigned to bring chaos into focus. Fortunately, the negative disparate aspects of the change trickled back into B.C. time without influencing the calendar rotation forward. The hardest part deciphering this calendar were the missing dates associated with major announcements in historic Rome. The prime example is when did the Roman Senate deify Julius Caesar and what consummated that anointing? This magnanimous event constituted the major hegemony of political, civil and religious authority in the history of the world, to this very day. It demanded Julius Caesar be one of Daniel’s terminus “Messiahs” (Dan. 9:26).

The first and foremost Biblical item of importance concerning this calendar is the metaphoric use of the word “star” (meaning leap day) in Revelation 8:10. It’s described as a “great star”; very important. To understand the importance of this announcement, it’s realized to be the only historic leap day ever singled out as “great”. Revelation 8:10 is declaring 45 B.C. a bissextile year, but there are more instructions; “…it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters” (Rev. 8:9).

As you can see from the earlier chart, that’s metaphorically June and July not February. You can surmise then that this leap day superseded its original placement. It was added immediately after Julius Caesar’s deification day, at the end of July. The deification of Julius Caesar was planned and added to the calendar in 45 B.C., by taking one day (a leaper) away from February and adding it to July, changing the month name from Quintilis to July (birth month) and anointing him with an immediate created (“great”) second (2nd) leap day. The ensuing calendar rollout is proof of the accuracy. No extra leap day and 44 B.C. will not string together cohesively as the next calendar, it will be short by one (1) day. Everyone knows Julius Caesar died on the Ides of March 44 B.C. (March 15th); if the change hadn’t already been made, Julius Caesar’s death would not have fallen on March 15th. Someone was intelligent enough to know in advance that 45 B.C. was in reality a leap year.

The immediate orientation of the Year of Confusion calendar matches the vernal equinox of March 21st with the March 1st kalend. March 1st was the original beginning of year in the Roman Republic calendar; subservience to this tradition was followed exactly, except vernal seasonal alignment was incorporated. As students of calendars know the Julian calendar was 21 days out of alignment seasonally conceptually, but gained one (1) day every approximately 132 years. In the years A.D. 2,726 – A.D. 2,858 the Julian calendar will be mathematically aligned seasonally.

Revelation 8:11 identifies exactly (in 45 B.C.) where the leap day was located calendrically. The word “waters” is descriptive of both “rivers” and “fountains of waters”. So, the location described is a combination of both June and July. The majority of July fell within the parameters of June, but the “third part of the waters” (location of leap day) was the 21st to 32nd of July which fell during the parameters of July, a precise location. This ended up giving 45 B.C. the typical 366 days of a leap year minus the intercalations. Obviously to avoid confusion, Julius Caesar chose 45 B.C. as the “year of confusion” and added a leap day because 91/7 = 13 (Julius Caesar’s formula; days added to link calendar to seasons, divided by rotation of amount of days of the week, equals a whole number; also, 90 + 366/7 = 65.1428 the reason Julius Caesar eliminated the day designation from the “great” leap day). “Wormwood” was the description of this particular leap day. The reason is it caused the misalignment of the days of weeks through A.D. 1; “many men (months) died (misaligned) of the waters (deification)”. By January 1st, 44 B.C. the immediate event was over (confusion; “bitter”) resulting in a January 1st, lined up the way we do today.


 A 13th Century scholar named Johannes de Sacrobosco is famous for identifying two (2) aspects of the Caesar calendars 1). Errant inclusive leap days of the Julius Caesar reform. 2). Caesar Augustus 8 B.C. deification. Sacrobosco’s identification of another (one day) elimination from February into August is disputed to this day, but we shall see it is exactly correct Biblically. February was dropped to the now familiar 28 days and August increased to the familiar 31 days; no dispute there! When and why it occurred is what the story is about. John the Revelator shall now be the arbitrator. These messages were delivered by seven (7) angels, the last three (3) being called “woe”s. The first four (4) trumpets ended (Rev. 8:12) with Roman Civilization. The three (3) “woe”s are descriptive of the Roman Empire.


This final aspect of monthly arraignments will be the definition of Roman calendars historically. Revelation 9:1 “And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit. And he opened the bottomless pit; and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit.” (Rev. 9:1,2). So, you can see that the sun (metaphorically august) was affected by a “star” (a leaper). We know Caesar Augustus did this because he is associated with the “five months” (Rev. 9:5,10); Julius Caesar was long dead by 36 years. To itemize the months correctly, it must be noted there was an original Julius Caesar calendar in the works before his deification.


Revelation’s Month Changes and Lengths




“And there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth: and unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power. And it was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree: but only those men which have not the seal of God in their foreheads…And they had tails like unto scorpions, and there were stings in their tails: and their power was to hurt men five months. And they had a king over them, which is the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon”. (Rev. 9:3,4,10,11). There are a bunch of metaphors flying around here:

1). Star = leap day.

2). Heaven = correct solar system rotation.

3). Earth = period of time after zero year.

4). Bottomless pit = inaccurate mathematics of calendars.

5). Smoke = mathematical manipulation.

6). Furnace = problem with inclusive count.

7). Sun = August.

8). Air = time period with no leap days.

9). Darkened = changed.

10). Locusts = leap days.

11). Scorpions of the earth = dismissed leap days.

12). Grass, green thing, tree = months not affected (8 B.C. – 5 B.C.).

13). Men = months.

14). Seal of God = lengths not changed.

15). Five months = desolate years (4 B.C. – 0 year); also 5 B.C.

16). Seek Death = be relieved of mathematical structure.

17). King = math formula.

18). Abaddon/Apollyon = destroyer.


Unfortunately, the easy part is over! The rest of chapter nine (9) in Revelation is the most confusing convoluted story in mankind’s history. It involves the rotation of the seven (7) weekly days and the movement of the Kalends, Nones and Ides to facilitate Judaism. There was a big problem implementing Julius Caesar’s instructions for the leap day. Romans counted inclusively; without a zero. Roman numerals don’t have a zero. So, every three (3) years the mathematicians were adding a leap day. I think that’s a fundamental problem you could describe as “smoky”, blurred, and disturbing. You can’t read about this anywhere. There are no extant records of a Caesar Augustus Council that deliberated the formation of the Augustan calendar. The only extant record we have is Biblical (Daniel and Revelation).

The rendition of the Julian calendar on pp. 284-287 is what works (it was edited). I started 45 B.C. with a number six (6) calendar but made the change to a number twelve (12) calendar once it became obvious 45 B.C. was a bissextile (leap) year. No big deal it still conformed. But lingering in the back of my brain was Daniel’s statement “How long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot? And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.” (Daniel 8:13,14). Really; ugh!

On p. 287 it’s obvious the 2300 days begin and move backward (timewise) from A.D. 1, last day. December 31st, A.D. 1 is Daniel’s identified (start counting backwards) day. Big problem because the calendar rotation presented represented a grand finale (leap day) on February 25th, A.D 12. At this time a thought entered the picture, Romans had “market days” they didn’t necessarily worry themselves with the Judaic seven (7) day week. Nowhere does it say the leap days instrumental in Julian/Augustan calendars represented a distinct day of the week. For instance Julius Caesar’s leap day after his deification day on July 32nd, 45 B.C., should represent a Sunday. What if the Romans made Caesar leap days free of any definition, certainly they were a break in the “market days”. Remember, it was a “great star”? What if none of the leap days carried the weight of a day of the week? There has to be a reason Daniel and John the Revelator were all riled up!

So, what Daniel is really saying is that Julius Caesar’s deification leap day corrupted God’s Sabbath. 45 B.C. with a leap day, and 45 B.C. with a leap day not distinguished as a day of the week, have the exact rotation of Julian calendars but would destroy (Daniel 8:11,12) the Judaic seven (7) day rotation. No one would ever know if it wasn’t identified in Daniel. According to Daniel then, A.D. 1 was a “great” leap year in the Julian calendar. By January 1st, A.D. 2, the “sanctuary” (Sabbath) and the “host” (seven day rotation) were again in alignment. The “five months” of Rev. 9:5,10 are descriptive of 5 B.C. when Caesar Augustus broke his seven (7) year “covenant” (Dan. 9:27; “abomination”) to resume Julius Caesar’s four (4) year leap days and left that year “desolate”; John the Revelator’s “Abaddon” and “Apollyon”. He broke his word in the “midst of the week” (5 B.C.; 8 B.C – 2 B.C.) It was a nominal Caesarian hegemony.

Fourteen Day Misalignment – Julian calendar


This Julian calendar rotation dictates A.D. 1 was a leap year. The “great” leap day of A.D. 1 didn’t count in Daniel’s 2300 day prophecy either. Also, the Romans reported A.D. 7 and A.D. 11 were leap years. From these instructions, the rotation becomes a #5 calendar in A.D. 33. The archaic Julian picture of Jesus Christ’s Crucifixion now becomes crystal clear. Jesus Christ was up all night Thursday April 2nd, A.D. 33 and crucified the next day (Friday; April 3rd, A.D. 33) at 9:00 am (“third hour; Mark 15:25) and was dead by 3:00 pm (“ninth hour”; Matt. 27:46). But, the claim is made, “In the end of the sabbath (Saturday), as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the sepulchre.” (Matt. 28:1). Not possible (“third day” Matt. 17:23), unless catastrophically two (2) days were added to earth’s rotation and Saturday evening was really Monday evening; two (2) days that were already mathematically added at the zero year. Move the Julian calendars up one space to fill in the zero year and coordinate the matching Ephemeris Crucifixion, Monday, April 3rd, A.D. 32.


Julian calendar Rotation

Zero year Through A.D. 33



I had to count backwards to identify the day of the week that defined March 21st in 45 B.C. I might be the only person in the USA to count backwards calendrically in the 21st Century. The point is we don’t use Kalends, Nones or Ides; they’re nonsense to Americans. Moses counted backwards in the Bible to identify “feast days”, but never mentioned what he was counting back to. Most of Revelation 9 is dealing with the placement of the Kalends, Nones and Ides in the Caesar calendars. There is no reason to spend an amount of time on this subject because there are no reference points to look back at for something familiar, anything familiar.

Maybe I’m missing something important! The only reason Caesar Augustus spent as much time as he did on these changes was because there was outrage at his official decision to again change the calendar. He had apparently announced after becoming Caesar he wouldn’t change the calendar again. I’ve already outlined the significant days of Daniel’s 2300 days and their relationship to Caesar Augustus (p. 287). The present alignment of months and days of months were the result of final adjustments by some sort of Augustan Council that no one has ever heard of. The only important thing is to draw out the chart of John the Revelator’s metaphoric menagerie (locusts, scorpions, horses, lions).

Years ago in the dim past of Victorian America, preachers used to warn of the coming events of the Tribulation. One specific event was the advance of the “yellow hoard” (Mongols) on Megiddo (Armageddon). If you piece the story together it came from 1 Kings 18:17-46, Revelation 9:16,17; 16:12. Because of the size of the purported army (200,000,000 men), it was assumed a force would come from China, march in reverse of Alexander the Great straight to Israel, cross the Euphrates River at drought stage and meet their doom at the hands of an angry God. I suppose during these types of sermons the blood would run hot and the collection plates full.

So we see, “And the number of the army of the horsemen were two hundred thousand thousand: and I heard the number of them. And thus I saw the horses in the vision, and them that sat on them,” (Rev. 9:16,17). These are the same scorpions of verses three through six (3-6) that came out of the “air” of Caesar Augustus’s five (5) year “abomination”, that later turned into prepared horses (Kalend, Nones and Ides) with “crowns” that couldn’t move because they had breastplates of iron, which later had riders and were on the move. “Locusts” were the missing leap days that Caesar Augustus abolished to reorient the Julian calendar. It all moves forward in John’s vision propelled by the “smoke” (mathematical manipulation).

It’s all an allegory that stories the evolution of the calendar that we have today. “Two hundred thousand thousand” represents the Kalends, Nones and Ides and their manipulated movements to complete the changes from the Roman Republic calendar into the Augustan calendar. If you reduce the totals by 10² they are simply Kalends (2), Nones (10) and Ides (10); very clever. Caesar/Augustus borrowed a day from February adding it onto July/August described as “two hundred” in Rev. 9:16. The “thousand thousand” are ten “angels” (days) change from the Roman Republic calendar into the Augustan calendar. Bold “X” represents the changes in positions of the Kalends, Nones and Ides.

Allegorical Kalends, Nones, Ides * 10²


Revelation 9:13-21 goes into great detail to describe the changes of the Kalends, Nones and Ides. “Angel” is a metaphor for day. So, “hour”, “day”, “month” and “year” are describing four (4) particular days in the adjustment of the Kalends. The first two (hour, day) let’s assume describe the February leapers. The second two (month, year) describe the destinations in July and August.

In similar form the “men” (months) are describing “serpents” with “heads” as the movement of the Nones and Ides. The “devils”, “idols of gold”, silver”, “brass”, “stone” and “wood” are descriptive of two (2)-six (6) month spans of the year. The first six (6) month span (Jan., Feb., March, April, May and June) require movement in three (3) months (“see” – January; “hear” – April; “walk” – June). The second six (6) month span (July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. and Dec.) require movement in four (4) months (“murders” – August; “sorceries” – September; “fornications” – November; “thefts” – December); quite cryptic language.

Roman Acknowledgment of Catastrophic Astronomy

In THE BOOK OF CALENDARS edited by Frank Parise, p. 300 is documented the rotation of the Julian calendar. Year A.D. 36 is declared a leap year #8 calendar. They also supply a nominal reverse rotation based on the rules of the Julian calendar. From the apparent designated leap years of A.D. 7 and A.D. 11 to a rotational leap year in A.D. 36 is an impossible contortion for the Julian calendar

I’m in the 7-11 camp because that rotation lines up the prophecies of Jesus Christ exactly for the Julian year A.D. 33; Friday Crucifixion, Sunday (Monday) Resurrection, pp. 264, 268. If you start counting leap years from 9 B.C. and include zero year (“palace” which the Romans made adjustments for), 7-11 is the pattern.

The rotational extension of the Julian calendar from A.D. 31 forward doesn’t match any calendric possibilities. Why?


Something happened to cause the Romans to extend the leap year to the A.D 36th fifth (5th) year. The crucial event known to man was the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his extra two (2) day rotation of the earth. These current era Romans were documenting this event to the extent of their ability. These weren’t the calendric magicians of Julius Caesar and Caesar Augustus’ days. By this time, the Pontifex Maximus probably wondered if the required calendar manipulations would ever end.

This is really ignorance on the part of the Romans, a repeat of the Gospel errors, which aren’t really looking that bad now. The mathematical calendar function was accomplished by the rotation through the zero year; no further mathematical/calendric response was required. They lived through the event described as “Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour.” (Matt. 27:45). By their calendar manipulation it’s obvious they knew it was more like days than hours. They staged a halfhearted effort.

The Romans changed the normal calendar rotation in A.D 36 from a #2 calendar to a #8 calendar by eliminating the leap year from A.D 35. This changed the start of year A.D. 36 to a Sunday instead of the required Monday. That only constitutes a deletion of one day for the first two (2) months of year A.D. 36., since they declared A.D. 36 a leap year. That seems to be the extent of their abilities at that time for their perception of what happened during the Crucifixion event. But, you can clearly see all three (3) scenarios include four (4) non-leap years and two (2) leap years, the same exact total of days. A futile, useless exercise.

It looks like probably just what it was, a limited government response to a public outrage. Rome wasn’t going to react to the Crucifixion of an insignificant Jew no matter how much outrage there was. Who’s going to believe there were two (2) extra days anyway? Jews don’t react well to any fundamental change in Mosaic Law; days of the week were Jewish “ordinances”. Rome supplied a non-functional mathematical change in the calendar to assuage public outrage.

“And the serpent cast out of his mouth water as a flood after the woman, that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood. And the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed up the flood which the dragon cast out of his mouth.” (Rev. 12:15,16). This “serpent” is the same beast of Rev. 9:19 that killed months. Now this beast is causing confusion by eliminating a leap year to destroy mankind’s ability to tie the Julian calendar together historically. This final “woe” is caused by the devil “having great wrath” because “he knoweth that he hath but a short time” (the effect only lasted two months) Rev. 12:12. It’s such a phony glitch it’s amazing no one has spotted it till now!

Rome tied the Metonic Cycle to their Julian calendar but were forced to delete the Kalends, Nones and Ides because the Jewish Sanhedrin unexpectedly observed the new moon two (2) days early in April A.D. 33. To rid themselves of the escalating problem, they annihilated Judaism in A.D. 70 (Rev. 11:3). Of course they’ve hidden this “little gem” for two (2) thousand years; an exact mimicry of Aztec genocide because their calendar mathematics was junk. We need to reinstall phases of the moon into the new Millennium calendar.






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